1. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Nov ;( 428):261-71.

450 closed fractures of the distal third of the tibia treated with a functional brace.

Sarmiento A, Latta LL.



Four hundred fifty closed fractures of the distal third of the tibial diaphysis, treated with a functional brace, are the subject of this study. Four (0.9%) of the fractures resulted in nonunion. The average healing time was 16.6 +/- 5.6 weeks, with a range from 10-40 weeks. The average final shortening was 5.1 +/- 4.8 mm with a range from 0-25 mm. Four hundred twenty four (94.2%) fractures healed with < 12 mm shortening. Initial shortening at the time of injury essentially was unchanged, from 4.4 +/- 4.5 mm to 4.4 +/- 3.9 mm final shortening. Axially unstable closed tibial fractures do not shorten beyond the initial shortening. Four-hundred five fractures (90.0%) healed with less than 8 degrees angular deformity in either the frontal or sagittal planes, and 302 (67.1%) healed with less than 5 degrees deformity in any plane. Overall, 391 fractures (87%) healed with shortening less than 12 mm and angulation in any plane less than 8 degrees . These degrees of angular deformity and shortening seem to compare favorably with those reported by other investigators using intramedullary nails. It seems that functional bracing is an effective method of treatment of a selected group of tibial fractures.

2. Unfallchirurg. 2007 Oct; 110(10):824-32.

[Humeral diaphyseal fractures: functional bracing].

[Article in German]
Sarmiento A, Latta LL.


Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, 72 Avenue, 10333 SW, 33156, University of Miami, Florida, USA.


Functional bracing of humeral diaphyseal fractures was conceived after initial experiences with a similar method was used in the management of diaphyseal tibial fractures. Over the years, tibial functional bracing underwent major evolutionary changes, and found its indications basically limited to a smaller group of fractures, consisting of closed, axially unstable fractures that experience at the time of the injury an acceptable degree of shortening, and to transverse fracture that are appropriately reduced and rendered stable. On the other hand, functional bracing of diaphyseal humeral fractures has, maintained the initial indications, contraindications and methodology. This article describes the concept, indications and contraindications of functional bracing of humeral diaphyseal fractures and provides results of 620 fractures with complete follow-up. In 97.5% of the patients, the average healing time was 11.5 weeks. 16 patients (2.5%) required operative intervention because of a nonunion and 4 patients (
3. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006 Feb; 88(2):141-8.

The evolution of functional bracing of fractures.

Sarmiento A, Latta L.


Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Miami, School of Medicine, PO Box 016960, Miami, Florida, 3310 USA.